Bourgogne, is known as Burgundy outside of France, This fine wine region is home to some of the most expensive wine in the world coming from vineyards in The Cote d'Or.
This region is famous for producing the worlds best Pinot Noir and Chardonnay growing on a unique mixture of soil.
The history of the region is long starting off with the Romans introducing the vine in 52BC although it was the Monks that made Burgundy what is it today. The French revolution and the Napolonic code changed the region forever. The vineyard area is so fractionlised that the average vineyard holiding is only 15.5acres making it very difficult to produce your own label.
Global warming is affecting this region with harvest now 10 days ealier than 20 years ago.
All aspects of the Burgundy region will be covered on this page with the use of many useful maps.
.52 BC - Celts and Romans
Burgundy was a major trade crossroad between the Romans and the Northern Celtic tribes. During his period the Eduens, a Celtic tribe were living in Burgundy.
Celts and Romans introduced the grape vine to Burgundy, viticulture did not kick off at this stage as the population was too small
5th Century the Burgondes and the Franks
The Roman Empire was weakening, leaving Burgundy open for invasion by Barbarians.
450 a Germanic tribe known as Burgondes settled in the area and founded a kingdom known as Burgundia, another Germanic tribe known as the Franks settled in Goul.
534 Burgundia became apart of the Frankish Kingdom
Religion became increasingly popular during this period
as a result of all he violence.
Monks and Monasteries came to dominate the region. Vineyards expanded to provide wine for mass, churches soon dominated vineyard holdings and wine production.
The Abbeys of Burgundy
The Abbey of Cluny
909the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny, located near Macon this cathedral was as large as The Notre Dame of Paris. During the 11-12th century the monastery was the most well-endowed throughout the whole of Europe. It was the largest vineyard owner in Burgundy, during the French Revolution the cathedral was destroyed.
The Abbey of Citeaux
1098 the Cistercian Abbey of Citeaux was founded, located between Dijon and Beaune. Large book workshop, by the end of the French Revolution the library boasted over 10,000 volumes. The Dukes of a Burgundy as buried here.
The Abbey of Pontigny
114 the Cistercian Abbey of Pontigny was founded, located in Northern Burgundy close to Auxerre. The monks of Pontigny were the first to plant vines in Chablis.
The Dukes of Burgundy
An area west of the Saone river reaching into what is now Belgium was rules by The Dukes of Burgundy.
The 4 Dukes of Burgundy
Philippe the Bold 1363-1404
John the Fearless 1404-1419
Philippe the Good 1419- 1467
Charles the Bold 1467-1477
They were strong promotors and lovers of Burgundian wine. They spread the word throughout France, and still till today Burgundy has a reputation as a quality fine wine producing region
Philippe the Bold 1363-1404
In 1395 he banned the planting of the Gamay grape in the Côte d'Or. During the 14th century Gamay was a grape consumed by "common folk" and Pinot Noir was served to nobility. The Duke was concerned about the pace at which Gamay was spreading throughout the region and was advised by the wealthy to outlaw the grape.
John the Fearless 1404-1419
King Charles the VI fixed the zone of production in 1416 from Sens to Macon
Philippe the Good 1419-1467
This Duke built a charity hospital known as Hospices de Beaune
End of the 17th century, wines of Burgundy were 10x the price of all other wines.
1789 The French Revolution
Church land was confiscated and redistributed to farmers that had worked the land, few monopoles survived.
Monopole (single vineyard/ single proprietor)
1804 Napoleonic code
Napoleon Bonaparte issued the Napoleonic code, any inheritable property must be divided equally amount siblings. The beginning of the fractionalisation of vineyards in Burgundy.
The vine louse, reduced the area under vine significantly.the local economy went into decline and the population weakened
1847 King Louis - Philippe granted the village of Gevrey located in the Cotes de Nuits the right to append it's most famous vineyard to the name of the village itself, Gevrey Chambertin
Volnay, Meursault, Pommard are villages within the Cote de Beaune that did not append a notable vineyard to the village name as they have no Grand cru vineyards to append.
Nuits St Georges located in the Cotes de Nuits appened Les Saint Georges which is a Premier Cru vineyard
Ladoix Serrigny located in the Cote de Beaune appended Serrigny which is not a vineyard.
1859 1st wine auction held at the Hospices de Beaune
1861 1st offical vineyard classification system was carried out by the argiculture committee of Beaune.
Late 19th Century after phylloxera the region was replanted vineyard was organised into neat rows using a different training technique known as Guyot. The Guyot training system shapes the vine into one long cane carrying 8-10 buds and 1 short 2 bud spur.
There was an increase for white wine, 1930boundries for regions were also legally defined.
AOC legislation was created based on Burgundies various 1936 climats.
1986 60% of production was red
Today 60% of production is white
The Bourgogne region is highlight in red
Located in North East France
140 mile, streches from Chablis to Maconnais
The climate of Bourgogne is Semi-Continental
The region is 140 miles long from North to South there is significant temperature and climatic differences between the poles
In the North - Atlantic influences
In the South - Mediterranean influences
Saone River has no temperature moderating influences
Budbreak in Maconnais is ealier than in Chablis, harvest is in early September in Maconnais and begins early October in Chablis
THE GRAPES OF BURGUNDY
2 Primary grapes - Chardonnay & Pinot Noir
2 secondary grapes - Aligote & Gamay
White grape with high sugar and extract level
The colour of the wine can be pale white to yellow gold depending on the age, oak treatment and the terroir
Primary Fruit aromas are apple and citurs and the
Tertiary aromas are butter, nuts, giner, nutmeg and vanilla
Red grape variety with very skins, because of this the tannin levels are low to moderate and the wine is a lighter red colour.
The primary fruit flavours are strawberry and strawberry
Tertiary aromas are leather, earth, smoke, truffles,mushroom, clove and cinnamon
A white aromatic grape variety, the wine has a soft texture and a medium body with aromas of jasmine and vanilla perfume
Red variety which dominates the vineyards of Beaujolais. The tannins are low, beautiful bright red wine with high acidity. Red berry fruit, delicate floral aromas of rose, iris and violet
Bourgogne Blanc - Chardonnay
Bourgogne Rouge - Pinot Noir
Passé-tout-grains - Pinot noir & Gamay
Cremant de Bourgogne, sparkling wine produced in Burgundy and can be made from the following grapes: Sacy, Aligote, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Cesar & Gamay. Cremant de Bourgogne is produced using the traidtional method.
GEOLOGY & TOPOGRAPHY
Burgundy sits in the Paris Basin.
The Paris Basin, layers of different soil and is made up for elliptical serving plates that stack in the middle of France from youngest to oldest.
Each plate represents a layer of soil that formed during a particular geological era
Granite soil is the base and all soils stack onto this, except Beaujolais where the Granite soil surfaces.
Limestone and Marls
180,000,000 years ago France was semi-tropical and covered by a warm and shallow sea, shell fish dominated the waters and as they died they settled to the bottom. These shell fish deposits are what the limestone and limestone rich clays called marls are made up of.
Every geological era was dominated by different types of sea creatures, resulting in different types of limestones and marls.
Soils layered on top of the Granite are sedimentary
Oldest marine deposits are located in Southern Burgundy, Maconnais
Youngest marine deposits are found in Northern Burgundy, north of Chablis
The Saone Graben, (a geological trough) uplifts include the
Côte d'Or and the mountains of Jura.
The Côte d'Or is made up of 2 regions, Cote de Beaune and Cote de Nuits.
The soils of the Saone Graben
Colluvial soils from slope wash
Alluvial soils deposited by the Saone river
8 fault lines running through the Côte d'Or.
They were created by the shifting movement of the Earth, pushing around layers of sedimentary soils, this resulted in a patchwork of soils, varying ages, different natures right next to each other.
The golden slope in the Côte d'Or
Majority of vineyards are planted on the slope, where the vines are planted on the slope and at what aspect can determine the quality level.
Top of the slope - Premier Cru
Thinnest top soil
Least amount of rain, rainwater runs down hill to quickly the earth does not have time to absorb it
Middle of the slope - Grand Cru
Moderate amount of top soil
Receives direct rain plus the extra rain water that rushes down the slope
Bottom of the slope - Village AOC
Most amount of rain
Plains - regional AOC wines, Bourgogne Rouge
Soils are deep, and rich
Ample water supply
Grapes and Soil
Different grape varieties grow better on different soils, the terroir impacts the final product...wine!
Chardonnay - prefers Marly Soils
Marl - powerful wine, great concentration of flavours, produces an age worthy wine
Clay - structure, depth, round wine with earthy characteristics
Limestone - high acid, adds a mineral characteristic and aromas of citrus fruit
Pinot Noir - prefers limestone soils or marls with high limestone content
Limestone - lightly pigmented, elegant and highly aromatic
Marl - structure and fruit forward
Clay - less aromatic and complex, lots of body although needs 5-7 years in bottle to evolve and open up
Sitting at the top of the quality pyramid are the Grand Cru vineyard of Burgundy.
A Grand Cru
in Burgundy represents a single vineyard
The name of the vineyard will appear on the label along with the words Grand Cru
Grand Cru wines from Chablis, Chablis will always appear on the label along with the vineyard name and Grand Cru title
32 Grand Cru vineyard is Burgundy, representing 2% of total production
also represents a single vineyard
The following will appear on the label, vineyard name, village name and the words Premier Cru
If the vineyard name is not on the label the wine will be a blend of more then 1 Premier Cru vineyard
635 Premier Cru vineyards in Burgundy, represents 10% of total production
Grapes are grown within a specific zone of production surronding specific villages
Wine labelled village AOC is a blend of different vineyard sites from a particular village
If the village wine is produced from a single vineyard the producer is allowed to put the name of the climat of the label
44 Villages is Burgundy, represents 36% of production
Produced from grapes grown anywhere inwith the Burgundy region or from a specific region within Burgundy.
Incorporates the word "Bourgogne" into the name
Regional wines can place on the label, Grape variety, production method, region of production eg, Macon, production area eg Bourgogne and A climat eg, Bourgogne Cote-Saint-Jacques
24 Regional AOC in Burgundy, represents 52% of production
5 sub REGIONS OF BURUNDY
There are 5 sub regions in Burgundy
The collectiove North is made up of 3 regions Chalbis, Grand Auxerrois & Chatillonais
Cotes de Nuits, Cote de Beaune, The Cote Chalonnaise, The Maconnais.
The Collective North
Located in Northern Burgundy, the collective north is made up of 3 sub-regions, Chablis, Grand Auxerrois and Chatillonais
Chablis is located on the slopes of the Serein River valley
Grand Auxerrois is located around the town of Auxerre, Tonnerre, Vezeley and Joigny
Chatillonnais is located to the immediate east of Chablis
Climate - Continental influenced by the Atlantic
Maritime influence - impacts the weather patterns in spring and fall
Frosts - shorten the growing season
The landscape is flat and wipes sweep inwards through the plains. The cloud cover lowers temperatures and slows the ripening process resulting in a high acid, lean and aromatic wine.
Varieties planted - Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc and for cremant production, Sacy, Aligote, Pinot Noir and Cesar
Ancient sedimentary soils
(Chablis Grand & 1er Cru AOC)
(Petit Chablis & Chablis AOC)
Appellations of Chablis
Premier Cru (1er)
Chablis AOC & Petit Chablis AOC
7 vineyards are all located on 1 slope
89 vineyards are spread along both banks of the Serein river, its vineyards are located on the slope
Chablis AOC & Petit Chablis AOC
Chablis AOC - on the slopes or plains
Petit Chablis AOC - on the plains, vineyard plantings were extended due to market demand.
7 GRAND CRU VINEYARDS OF CHABLIS
Grand Auxerrois is located to the West of Chablis
The prinicpal AOC of Grand Auxerrois
St Bris (Sauvignon Blanc)
Bourgogne Cotes d'Auxerre
Bourgogne Coulonges - La Vineuse
Appellations of Grand Auxerrois
Irancy - Communal AOC located South West of Chablis
Produces Pinot Noir that is sometimes blended with Cesar
Cesar - rustic red grape variety, grippy tannin and spice
Saint Bris - Communal AOC located Sout West of Chablis
Sauvignon Blanc is produced here, highly aromatic with aromas of grass and blackcurrant leaf
Bourgogne Cotes d'Auxerre - Regional AOC
Red and White wine
Bourgogne Coulanges- La Vineuse - Regional AOC
Predominatley red wine
Bourgogne Epineuil- Small regional AOC for Red wine
Bourgogne Tonnerre - Small regional AOC of White wine locating North east of Chablis
Bourgogne Vezelay - Regional AOC South of Chablis producing White wine
Located South East of Chablis, between Chablis and Dijon
95% White and 5% Red
Has a reputation for producing top quality Cremant de Bourgogne
Aligote and Sacy are often blended into the cuvee
Only Regional bottlings are produced here
Cote de Nuits
Cote de Nuits
The vineyard of Côte de Nuits is a 12 mile strip between Dijon and Corgoloin
The red wine produced here is firmly structured with aromas of dark berry fruits, earth and spice.
The white wine produced here is elegantly structured with delicate apple fruit.
Côte de Nuits is an escarpment - altitude averages 1000ft and most vines face East.
Climate - Continental climate
Considerable seasonal variation, Summer are hot and winters are cold
Significant diurnals, the variation between day and night temperatures
Hails storms are not uncommon here and rain falls usually in May, June and October.
Vines are planted of limestone or limestone rich marl
Pinot Gris locally known as Pinot Beurot
Marsannay located in the North produced top quality delicate and fruity Rose
24 Grand Cru vineyards, Côte de Nuits is home to some of the worlds finest wine coming from the vineyards Vosne-Romanee, Vougeot, Morey St-Denis and Gevrey-Chambertin.
Only one of the Grand Cru vineyard produces white wine Musginy
Principal Communes & APpellations
2 regional AOC
Cote de Nuits AOC wine containing fruit from any of the villages within the Côte de Nuits
Hautes Cotes de Nuits AOC sub region of the Burgundy wine region located to the west of Côte de Nuits and is made up of 12 vineyards located above and behind the Côte d'Or escarpment.
The following principal communes and their Premier Cru and/or Grand Cru vineyards are placed in order
from North to South
reputation for producing top quality delicate and fruity rose
6 Premier Cru vineyards the wine produced here is robust , earthy, well structured red wine with firm tannins perfect for cellaring. This village is also apart of the Côte de Nuits Village AOC an appellation shared by 5 villages
is one of the villages in the Côte de Nuits village AOC
26 Premier Cru vineyards and 9 Grand Cru vineyards
The 9 Grand Cru vineyards are
Chabertin Clos de Beze
Morey St Denis AOC
20 Premier Crus vineyards and 5 Grand Cru Vineyards
The village is located at the half way point within Côte de Nuits
The 5 Grand Cru vineyards are
Clos de la Roche
Clos de tart
Clos Saint- Denis
24 Premier Cru vineyards and 2 Grand Cru vineyards
2 Grand Cru vineyards are
Musigny - the only Grand Cru vineyard producing white wine in the Côte de Nuits
4 Premier Cru vineyards and 1 Grand Cru vineyard
Exclusively red wine production
1 Grand Cru vineyard
Clos de Vougeot, only vineyard in the Côte d'Or located at the bottom of the slope, 3/4 of all production in the village is for this Grand Cru.
The wine develops complex aromas of forest undergrowth
14 Premier Cru vineyards and 8 Grand Cru vineyards
The 8 Grand Cru vineyards are, most prestigious vineyards in the Côte de Nuits
La Grand Rue
The wines have a stunning velvet texture, berry fruit, violet and earth.
41 Premier Cru vineyards
Wine produced here is meaty, spicy, earthy and deeply concentrated
Côte de Nuits Village AOC
This appellation includes 5 villages
Mostly red wine that is firmly structured with chalky tannins
Cote de Beaune
Cote de Beaune
Location South of the Cotes de Nuits and North of the Côte Chalonnaise
Côte de Beaune is located on an escarpment known as the "golden slope" whose altitudes average 1000ft with most vines facing East.
Climate is Continental
Grape varieties grown in this sub region are
Pinot Gris locally known as Pinot Beurot
The whites of Côte de Beaune display pure concentrated flavours
The reds of Côte de Beaune coming from Volnay, Pommard, Beaune and Aloxe-Corton display elegance, depth, finesse and concentration
Soil is limestone and limestone rich marls formed 160-185million years ago, slightly younger than the soils of the Côte de Nuits.
The terroir creates red and white wine with a noticeable minerality and acidity.
8 Grand Crus in Côte de Beaune, only 1 is red. The Grand Cru vineyard located withing the commune of Aloxe-Corton is labelled as Corton, can produce white wine as well.
PRINCIPAL villages & APPELLATIONS
Côte de Beaune AOC regional appellation
Can contain fruit from any of the villages within Côte de Beaune. The wine produced here is mainly red wine with firm tannins, acid and red fruit.
Hautes Côte de Beaune AOC is made up of 12 villages at the top of the escarpment (golden slope) at 1200ft in altitude
Ladoix -Serrigny AOC
11 Premier Cru and 2 Grand Cru vineyards
2 Grand Cru vineyards are shared with the 2 communes Corton and Pernard-Vergelesses. Majority of the wine production in this commune is bottled as Cote de Beaune Villages.
The 2 Grand cru vineyards are
Aloxe - Corton AOC
14 Premier Crus and 3 Grand Crus
3 Grand Crus are planted on the Hill of Corton and are partially overlapping, with 2 communes Ladoix-Serigny and Pernard-Vergelesses.
(only red wine producing Grand Cru in the Cote de Beaune)
8 Premier Crus and 2 Grand Crus
Shares the Grand cru vineyards with 2 other communes Ladoix-Serigny and Aloxe-Corton. Grand Cru vineyards are
Corton (only red Grand Cru)
Located just North of Beaune
Red wine with delicate tannins, lively acid and displays elegance.
22 Premier Cru vineyards producing mostly red wine with velvety tannins and soft red berry fruit. The white wine produced here has aromas of apples and hazelnuts.
Is known as the wine capital of Burgundy
42 Premier Cru vineyards producing mostly red wine with dark berry fruits, forest undergrowth and with age the wines display truffle, spice and leather notes.
28 Premier Cru vineyards
This communal has clay soils which produces red wine with intense flavours and aromas. They typically need several years of bottle age to express themselves.
29 Premier Cru vineyards
Only red production in this appellation
45% of production is for Premier Cru wine
The red wine produced here has a soft mouth feel, aromatic with dark berries, leather and woody notes and as the wines ages it's aromas pick up prune and spice
15 Premier Cry vineyards
The vineyards are planted together around a cut in the hillside made by a river, known as the mouth of a coomb.
The red wine displays aromatic fruit and silky tannins
9 Premier Cru vineyards
The communal is located South of the red appellation Volnay and North of the the white appellation Meursault
This AOC produces both Pinot noir and Chardonnay
18 Premier Cru vineyards
90% white production and almost 1/3 is more Premier Cru wine
Is located in the center of a wide coomb
The white wine produced here has a creamy texture and flavours of apple, oats when young and with age coffee, hazelnuts, cinnamon and honey
Saint Romain AOC
No Premier or Grand Cru vineyards
Almost all production is White
This communal is highly elevated making for lean, crisp and chiseled wines
17 Premier Cru vineyards and 4 Grand Cru vineyards
The Grand Cru vineyards are
Puligny-Montrachet mainly produces White wine that are powerful with golden apple, warm butter and toasted almond flavours
19 Premier Cru vineyards and 3 Grand Cru
The 3 Grand vineyards are
The first 2 Grand Cru vineyards on the list are shared with the communal Puligny
The white wine produced here is powerful with flavours of honey, apple and toasted nuts
The red wine produced here has black currant and undergrowth aromas and with age leather and fur
St Aubin AOC
16 Premier Cru vineyards
St Aubin has a reputation for producing White wine with racy acidity and pronounced minerality
Production here is 50% red and 50% white
The red wine produced here has delicate tannins and raspberry, cherry aromas
11 Premier Cru vineyards
Most of the vineyards are planted with Pinot Noir
The reds produced here are similar to those produced in the communal Chassagne with more delicate tannin
7 Premier Cru vineyards
This communal is the Southermost of the Cotes de Beaune
The red here are also similar to the those produced in Chassagne though again with more delicate tannin
Cotes de Beaune Villages
Village appellations can decide whether to label their wine
Côte de Beaune Villages the following villages are not allowed Aloxe, Beaune, Volnay and Pommard
Cotes de Beaune Village is predominately red wine with strong tannins, acidity and red berries this wine does very well with bottle age giving the wine time to mature and for the tannins to mellow.
A view over Pernand-Vergelesses and surrounding vineyards, with the Corton hill on the left side.
The Cote Chalonnaise
Location South of the Côte de Beaune and North of the Maconnais
The grapes planted here are
Aligote for Bouzeron AOC
Gamay for the blend and Passé-tout-Grains and the regional AOC Coteaux Bourguignons
The reds produced here are full bodied, firm tannins
The white produced here display floral notes of white flowers and apple
Soil Limestone, Marl are is home to some of the oldest soil in Burgundy
Red, white, rose and sparkling wine are produced here
Principal Villages & Appellations
The wine produced here is very aromatic, highly perfumed
23 Premier Cru vineyards
Known for its Cremant de Bourgogne production, Sparkling wine produced here is made in the traditional method
Producing red and white wine in the Premier Cru vineyards
31 Premier Cru vineyards
mostly planted to Pinot Noir
26 Premier Cru vineyards
mostly planted to Pinot Noir
49 Premier Cru vineyards
White only AOC
The white wine produced here has a delicate minerality
Location South of the Côte Chalonnaise and sits North of Beaujolais
West is the Grosne Valley and East is the Saone Valley
3 kilometres from Beaujolais
Largest vineyard area in Burgundy
Climate Is influenced by the Mediterranean
Sun shines here abundantly and In the growing season the temperatures are quite warm resulting in riper grapes with more pronounced fruit aromas and flavours
Winters in the Macconnais and mild
Pinot Noir (only allowed for Macon AOC)
The white wines produced here are known for their fruitiness
The red and rose wine produced here from Gamay has the typical flavour profile of red berry fruits, strawberries and cherries.
Soil Limestone and Marl are some of the oldest in Burgundy
Southern Maconnais - Granite and Schist, only region in Burgundy where these soils appear.
85% Chardonnay grown on limestone, marls and flinty clays
80% of production is bottled as Regional level Macon AOC
PRINCIPAL COMMUNES & APPELLATIONS
Most famous commune in The Maconnais
Reputation for producing quality Chardonnay with delicate aromas of fruit and flowers leading to a soild core of minerality
Soil found here is very similar to the soil in the Côte d'Or
Pouilly-Vinzelles AOC & Pouilly-Loche AOC
2 communes next to Pouilly-Fuisse AOC
These 3 communes produce Chardonnay that has delicate fruit, floral aromas and a solid core of minerality
St Veran AOC
Was once apart of Beaujolais
In 1971 was reintroduced to The Maconnais
The Chardonnay produced here is easy drinking everyday wine
Newest Maconnais AOC, introduced in 1999
Producing fruit forward Chardonnay
80% of wine produced in the Maconnais is regional AOC level
Majority of white wine produced here is sold as Macon-Villages or Macon + the name of the wine producing village, Macon-Fuisse
Only WHITE wine can be labelled Macon-Villages AOC.
Macon, Macon Superieur and Macon + village
Red and Rose wine, 20 wine producing villages are allowed to append their name onto the label.
Harvest is now 10 days earlier than 20 years ago
Grapes are now chilled before fermentation begins, cooling the fruits helps to preserve delicate aromas and inhibits the spreading of bacteria.
Increased maturity (riper tannins and pigments)
Now days during the winemaking process the cap doesn't need to be aggressively punched down like before, pumping over the fermenting juice instead. Punching down the grapes helps to release colour and flavour compounds.
Shorter maceration periods are needed because of the increased maturity level of grapes at harvest
Wild Yeasts - yeasts native to Burgundy, this is one of the ways Burgundians choose to stay true to terroir
Old oak barrels - used not to impart overt taste of wood tannins
New oak - some Grand Cru incorporate new oak
When to open your bottle of Burgundy
Patience is needed for Burgundian wine
Wines of the North
Grand Cru Chablis will need 3-4 years and serval more before it reaches it's peak
Chablis Premier Cru 2-3 years though can keep longer
Chablis 1-2 years
Petit Chablis - year after harvest
Wines of the Côte d'Or 4-8 years and the better the vintage the longer you should wait
Red wine from the Côte Chalonnaise 2-3 years
White wine from the Côte Chalonnaise 1-2 years
Red wine from the Maconnais should be consumed young
White wine from the Maconnais should also be consumed young
Vintage, and how is it impacting your bottle of Burgundy
Great vintages, you will find the differences to be less subtle between the various climats
Soft vintages, the wine will display many more subtle differences
Punching down the cap, tradtional Burgundian method. Increases the release levels of pigments and tannins from the grapes. Becoming unnecessary in Burgundy due to Increased maturity level at harvest. Increased ripeness = shorter maceration period
Pumping over method, is becoming more and more popluar in Burgundian wine production due to the increasing maturity levels of the grapes at harvest.