Bourgogne, is known as Burgundy outside of France, This fine wine region is home to some of the most expensive wine in the world coming from vineyards in The Cote d'Or.


This region is famous for producing the worlds best Pinot Noir and Chardonnay growing on a unique mixture of soil.  


The history of the region is long starting off with the Romans introducing the vine in 52BC although it was the Monks that made Burgundy what is it today. The French revolution and the Napolonic code changed the region forever. The vineyard area is so fractionlised that the average vineyard holiding is only 15.5acres making it very difficult to produce your own label.


Global warming is affecting this region with harvest now 10 days ealier than 20 years ago.


All aspects of the Burgundy region will be covered on this page with the use of many useful maps. 


.52 BC - Celts and Romans
Burgundy was a major trade crossroad between the Romans and the Northern Celtic tribes. During his period the Eduens, a Celtic tribe were living in Burgundy.

First Vines
Celts and Romans introduced the grape vine to Burgundy, viticulture did not kick off at this stage as the population was too small

5th Century the Burgondes and the Franks 
The Roman Empire was weakening, leaving Burgundy open for invasion by Barbarians.

450 a Germanic tribe known as Burgondes settled in the area and founded a kingdom known as Burgundia, another Germanic tribe known as the Franks settled in Goul. 

534 Burgundia became apart of the Frankish Kingdom 

Dark ages 
Religion became increasingly popular during this period

as a result of all he violence. 
Monks and Monasteries came to dominate the region. Vineyards expanded to provide wine for mass, churches soon dominated vineyard holdings and wine production. 

The Abbeys of Burgundy 

The Abbey of Cluny
the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny, located near Macon this cathedral was as large as The Notre Dame of Paris. During the 11-12th century the monastery was the most well-endowed throughout the whole of Europe. It was the largest vineyard owner in Burgundy, during the French Revolution the cathedral was destroyed.

The Abbey of Citeaux
1098 the Cistercian Abbey of Citeaux was founded, located between Dijon and Beaune. Large book workshop, by the end of the French Revolution the library boasted over 10,000 volumes. The Dukes of a Burgundy as buried here. 

The Abbey of Pontigny 
114 the Cistercian Abbey of Pontigny was founded, located in Northern Burgundy close to Auxerre. The monks of Pontigny were the first to plant vines in Chablis. 

The Dukes of Burgundy

An area west of the Saone river reaching into what is now Belgium was rules by The Dukes of Burgundy. 

The 4 Dukes of Burgundy 

Philippe the Bold 1363-1404
John the Fearless 1404-1419
Philippe the Good 1419- 1467
Charles the Bold 1467-1477

They were strong promotors and lovers of Burgundian wine. They spread the word throughout France, and still till today Burgundy has a reputation as a quality fine wine producing region 

Philippe the Bold 1363-1404
In 1395 he banned the planting of the Gamay grape in the Côte d'Or. During the 14th century Gamay was a grape consumed by "common folk" and Pinot Noir was served to nobility. The Duke was concerned about the pace at which Gamay was spreading throughout the region and was advised by the wealthy to outlaw the grape. 

John the Fearless 1404-1419 
King Charles the VI fixed the zone of production in 1416 from Sens to Macon 

Philippe the Good 1419-1467
This Duke built a charity hospital known as Hospices de Beaune

End of the 17th century, wines of Burgundy were 10x the price of all other wines.

1789 The French Revolution 
Church land was confiscated and redistributed to farmers that had worked the land, few monopoles survived.

Monopole (single vineyard/ single proprietor)

1804 Napoleonic code
Napoleon Bonaparte issued the Napoleonic code, any inheritable property must be divided equally amount siblings. The beginning of the fractionalisation of vineyards in Burgundy. 

1800s Phylloxera
The vine louse, reduced the area under vine significantly.the local  economy went into decline and the population weakened 

1847 King Louis - Philippe  granted the village of Gevrey located in the Cotes de Nuits  the right to append it's most famous vineyard to the name of the village itself, Gevrey Chambertin 

Volnay, Meursault, Pommard are villages within the Cote de Beaune that did not append a notable vineyard to the village name as they have no Grand cru vineyards to append.


Nuits St Georges located in the Cotes de Nuits appened Les Saint Georges which is a Premier Cru vineyard 


Ladoix Serrigny located in the Cote de Beaune appended Serrigny which is not a vineyard.


1859 1st wine auction held at the Hospices de Beaune


1861 1st offical vineyard classification system was carried out by the argiculture committee of Beaune. 


Late 19th Century after phylloxera the region was replanted vineyard was organised into neat rows using a different training technique known as Guyot. The Guyot training system shapes the vine into one long cane carrying 8-10 buds and 1 short 2 bud spur. 


There was an increase for white wine, 1930boundries for regions were also legally defined. 


AOC legislation was created based on Burgundies various 1936 climats.


1986 60% of production was red 


Today 60% of production is white 


The Bourgogne region is highlight in red 


Located in North East France 


140 mile, streches from Chablis to Maconnais 



The climate of Bourgogne is Semi-Continental 


The region is 140 miles long from North to South there is significant temperature and climatic differences between the poles


In the North - Atlantic influences 


In the South - Mediterranean influences 


Saone River has no temperature moderating influences


Budbreak in Maconnais is ealier than in Chablis, harvest is in early September in Maconnais and begins early October in Chablis


2 Primary grapes - Chardonnay & Pinot Noir


2 secondary grapes - Aligote & Gamay 



White grape with high sugar and extract level

The colour of the wine can be pale white to yellow gold depending on the age, oak treatment and the terroir

Primary Fruit aromas are apple and citurs and the

Tertiary aromas are butter, nuts, giner, nutmeg and vanilla 



Red grape variety with very skins, because of this the tannin levels are low to moderate and the wine is a lighter red colour.

The primary fruit flavours are strawberry and strawberry
Tertiary aromas are leather, earth, smoke, truffles,mushroom, clove and cinnamon 

Secondary grapes


A white aromatic grape variety, the wine has a soft texture and a medium body with aromas of jasmine and vanilla perfume 

Red variety which dominates the vineyards of Beaujolais. The tannins are low, beautiful bright red wine with high acidity. Red berry fruit, delicate floral aromas of rose, iris and violet

Varietal wines 
Bourgogne Blanc - Chardonnay
Bourgogne Rouge - Pinot Noir 

Passé-tout-grains - Pinot noir & Gamay
Cremant de Bourgogne, sparkling wine produced in Burgundy and can be made from the following grapes: Sacy, Aligote, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Cesar & Gamay. Cremant de Bourgogne is produced using the traidtional method.



Burgundy sits in the Paris Basin.
The Paris Basin, layers of different soil and is made up for elliptical serving plates that stack in the middle of France from youngest to oldest. 
Each plate represents a layer of soil that formed during a particular geological era
Granite soil is the base and all soils stack onto this, except Beaujolais where the Granite soil surfaces.

Limestone and Marls
180,000,000 years ago France was semi-tropical and covered by a warm and shallow sea, shell fish dominated the waters and as they died they settled to the bottom. These shell fish deposits are what the limestone and limestone rich clays called marls are made up of.

Every geological era was dominated by different types of sea creatures, resulting in different types of limestones and marls. 

Soils layered on top of the Granite are sedimentary 

Oldest marine deposits are located in Southern Burgundy, Maconnais

Youngest marine deposits are found in Northern Burgundy, north of Chablis

The Saone Graben, (a geological trough) uplifts include the

Côte d'Or and the mountains of Jura.
The Côte d'Or is made up of 2 regions, Cote de Beaune and Cote de Nuits. 

The soils of the Saone Graben 
Colluvial soils from slope wash
Alluvial soils deposited by the Saone river

Fault lines
8 fault lines running through the Côte d'Or.
They were created by the shifting movement of the Earth, pushing around layers of sedimentary soils, this resulted in a patchwork of soils, varying ages, different natures right next to each other. 

The golden slope in the Côte d'Or
Majority of vineyards are planted on the slope, where the vines are planted on the slope and at what aspect can determine the quality level. 

Top of the slope - Premier Cru
Thinnest top soil 
Least amount of rain, rainwater runs down hill to quickly the earth does not have time to absorb it

Middle of the slope - Grand Cru
Moderate amount of top soil 
Receives direct rain plus the extra rain water that rushes down the slope

Bottom of the slope - Village AOC 
Deepest soils
Most amount of rain

Plains - regional AOC wines, Bourgogne Rouge
Soils are deep, and rich 
Ample water supply

Grapes and Soil 
Different grape varieties grow better on different soils, the terroir impacts the final product...wine! 

Chardonnay - prefers Marly Soils

Marl - powerful wine, great concentration of flavours, produces an age worthy wine

Clay - structure, depth, round wine with earthy characteristics 

Limestone - high acid, adds a mineral characteristic and aromas of citrus fruit

Pinot Noir - prefers limestone soils or marls with high limestone content

Limestone - lightly pigmented, elegant and highly aromatic 

Marl - structure and fruit forward 

Clay - less aromatic and complex, lots of body although needs 5-7 years in bottle to evolve and open up



Sitting at the top of the quality pyramid are the Grand Cru vineyard of Burgundy.

A Grand Cru

in Burgundy represents a single vineyard
The name of the vineyard will appear on the label along with the words Grand Cru



Grand Cru wines from Chablis, Chablis will always appear on the label along with the vineyard name and Grand Cru title 

32 Grand Cru vineyard is Burgundy, representing 2% of total production 

Premier Cru

also represents a single vineyard 

The following will appear on the label, vineyard name, village name and the words Premier Cru
If the vineyard name is not on the label the wine will be a blend of more then 1 Premier Cru vineyard

635 Premier Cru vineyards in Burgundy, represents 10% of total production

Village AOC 

Grapes are grown within a specific zone of production surronding specific villages 

Wine labelled village AOC is a blend of different vineyard sites from a particular village

If the village wine is produced from a single vineyard the producer is allowed to put the name of the climat of the label 


44 Villages is Burgundy, represents 36% of production 


Regional AOC 

Produced from grapes grown anywhere inwith the Burgundy region or from a specific region within Burgundy. 

Incorporates the word "Bourgogne" into the name

Regional wines can place on the label, Grape variety, production method, region of production eg, Macon, production area eg Bourgogne and A climat eg, Bourgogne Cote-Saint-Jacques


24 Regional AOC in Burgundy, represents 52% of production

















There are 5 sub regions in Burgundy

The collectiove North is made up of 3 regions Chalbis, Grand Auxerrois & Chatillonais 

Cotes de Nuits, Cote de Beaune, The Cote Chalonnaise, The Maconnais. 

The Collective North

Located in Northern Burgundy, the collective north is made up of 3 sub-regions, Chablis, Grand Auxerrois and Chatillonais 

Chablis is located on the slopes of the Serein River valley


Grand Auxerrois is located around the town of Auxerre, Tonnerre, Vezeley and Joigny


Chatillonnais is located to the immediate east of Chablis 


Climate - Continental influenced by the Atlantic 


Maritime influence - impacts the weather patterns in spring and fall


Frosts - shorten the growing season 


The landscape is flat and wipes sweep inwards through the plains. The cloud cover lowers temperatures and slows the ripening process resulting in a high acid, lean and aromatic wine. 


Varieties planted - Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc and for cremant production, Sacy, Aligote, Pinot Noir and Cesar



 Ancient sedimentary soils





Kimmeridgean Marl

(Chablis Grand & 1er Cru AOC)





Portlandian Marl

(Petit Chablis & Chablis AOC)









Appellations of Chablis






Premier Cru (1er)

Chablis AOC & Petit Chablis AOC



7 vineyards are all located on 1 slope 


Kimmeridgean Marl




89 vineyards are spread along both banks of the Serein river, its vineyards are located on the slope


Kimmeridgean Marl


Chablis AOC & Petit Chablis AOC


Portlandian Marl 


Chablis AOC - on the slopes or plains 


Petit Chablis AOC - on the plains, vineyard plantings were extended due to market demand.













Les Clos 


Les Preuses 








Grand Auxerrois is located to the West of Chablis 


67% White 


33% Red 


The prinicpal AOC of Grand Auxerrois 




St Bris (Sauvignon Blanc) 


Bourgogne Cotes d'Auxerre


Bourgogne Coulonges - La Vineuse



Appellations of Grand Auxerrois 


Irancy - Communal AOC located South West of Chablis 

Produces Pinot Noir that is sometimes blended with Cesar 

Cesar - rustic red grape variety, grippy tannin and spice 


Saint Bris - Communal AOC located Sout West of Chablis 

Sauvignon Blanc is produced here, highly aromatic with aromas of grass and blackcurrant leaf 


Bourgogne Cotes d'Auxerre - Regional AOC

Red and White wine 


Bourgogne Coulanges- La Vineuse - Regional AOC

Predominatley red wine


Bourgogne Epineuil- Small regional AOC for Red wine


Bourgogne Tonnerre - Small regional AOC of White wine locating North east of Chablis  


Bourgogne Vezelay - Regional AOC South of Chablis producing White wine


The Chatillonnais 

Located South East of Chablis, between Chablis and Dijon 


95% White and 5% Red 


Has a reputation for producing top quality Cremant de Bourgogne 


Aligote and Sacy are often blended into the cuvee


Only Regional bottlings are produced here

Cote de Nuits


Cote de Nuits 


The vineyard of Côte de Nuits is a 12 mile strip between Dijon and Corgoloin 

The red wine produced here is firmly structured with aromas of dark berry fruits, earth and spice. 

The white wine produced here is elegantly structured with delicate apple fruit. 

Côte de Nuits is an escarpment - altitude averages 1000ft and most vines face East.

Climate - Continental climate

Considerable  seasonal variation, Summer are hot and winters are cold

Significant diurnals, the variation between day and night temperatures

Hails storms are not uncommon here and rain falls usually in May, June and October. 

Vines are planted of limestone or limestone rich marl

Grape varieties 

Pinot Noir
Pinot Gris locally known as Pinot Beurot 


89% Red
Marsannay located in the North produced top quality delicate and fruity Rose  

24 Grand Cru vineyards, Côte de Nuits is home to some of the worlds  finest wine coming from the vineyards Vosne-Romanee, Vougeot, Morey St-Denis and Gevrey-Chambertin.

Only one of the Grand Cru vineyard produces white wine Musginy 

Principal Communes & APpellations

2 regional AOC

Cote de Nuits AOC  wine containing fruit from any of the villages within the Côte de Nuits 

Hautes Cotes de Nuits AOC sub region of the Burgundy wine region located to the west of Côte de Nuits and is made up of 12 vineyards located above and behind the  Côte d'Or escarpment. 


The following principal communes and their Premier Cru and/or Grand Cru vineyards are placed in order

from North to South

Marsannay AOC

reputation for producing top quality delicate and fruity rose

Fixin AOC  

6 Premier Cru vineyards the wine produced here is robust , earthy, well structured red wine with firm tannins perfect for cellaring. This village is also apart of the Côte de Nuits Village AOC an appellation shared by 5 villages

Brochon AOC

is one of the villages in the Côte de Nuits village AOC 

Gevrey-Chambertin AOC

26 Premier Cru vineyards and 9 Grand Cru vineyards 

The 9 Grand Cru vineyards are



Chabertin Clos de Beze 






Mazis- Chambertin

Ruchottes Chambertin 


Morey St Denis AOC

20 Premier Crus vineyards and 5 Grand Cru Vineyards

The village is located at the half way point within Côte de Nuits

The 5 Grand Cru vineyards are


Clos de la Roche


Clos de tart

Clos Saint- Denis


Bones Mares 


Chambolle-Musigny AOC

24 Premier Cru vineyards and 2 Grand Cru vineyards

2 Grand Cru vineyards are

Bonnes Mares

Musigny - the only Grand Cru vineyard producing white wine in the Côte de Nuits


Vougeot AOC

4 Premier Cru vineyards and 1 Grand Cru vineyard 

Exclusively red wine production 

1 Grand Cru vineyard

Clos de Vougeot, only vineyard in the Côte d'Or located at the bottom of the slope, 3/4 of all production in the village is for this Grand Cru. 

The wine develops complex aromas of forest undergrowth 



Vosne-Romanee AOC

14 Premier Cru vineyards and 8 Grand Cru vineyards

The 8 Grand Cru vineyards are, most prestigious vineyards in the Côte de Nuits

La Romanee




La Tache


Grands Eechezeaux 

La Grand Rue

The wines have a stunning velvet texture, berry fruit, violet and earth.


Nuits-Saint-Georges AOC

41 Premier Cru vineyards

Wine produced here is meaty, spicy, earthy and deeply concentrated 

Côte de Nuits Village AOC 

This appellation includes 5 villages







Mostly red wine that is firmly structured with chalky tannins


Cote de Beaune

Cote de Beaune

Location South of the Cotes de Nuits and North of the Côte Chalonnaise 

Côte de Beaune is located on an escarpment known as the "golden slope" whose altitudes average 1000ft with most vines facing East.

Climate is Continental 

Grape varieties grown in this sub region are


Pinot noir


Pinot Gris locally known as Pinot Beurot

The whites of Côte de Beaune display pure concentrated flavours

The reds of Côte de Beaune  coming from Volnay, Pommard, Beaune and Aloxe-Corton display elegance, depth, finesse and concentration

Soil is limestone and limestone rich marls formed 160-185million years ago, slightly younger than the soils of the Côte de Nuits.


The terroir creates red and white wine with a noticeable minerality and acidity.

57% Red

43% White

8 Grand Crus in Côte de Beaune, only 1 is red. The Grand Cru vineyard located withing the commune of Aloxe-Corton  is labelled as Corton, can produce white wine as well. 


Côte de Beaune AOC  regional appellation 
Can contain fruit from any of the villages within Côte de Beaune. The wine produced here is mainly red wine with firm tannins, acid and red fruit.

Hautes Côte de Beaune AOC is made up of 12 villages at the top of the escarpment (golden slope) at 1200ft in altitude 

Ladoix -Serrigny AOC

11 Premier Cru and 2 Grand Cru vineyards
2 Grand Cru vineyards are shared with the 2 communes Corton and Pernard-Vergelesses. Majority of the wine production in this commune is bottled as Cote de Beaune Villages. 

The 2 Grand cru vineyards are





Aloxe - Corton AOC
14 Premier Crus and 3 Grand Crus

3 Grand Crus are planted on the Hill of Corton and are partially overlapping, with 2 communes Ladoix-Serigny and Pernard-Vergelesses




(only red wine producing Grand Cru in the Cote de Beaune)





Pernard-Vergelesses AOC

8 Premier Crus and 2 Grand Crus 

Shares the Grand cru vineyards with 2 other communes Ladoix-Serigny and Aloxe-Corton. Grand Cru vineyards are



Corton (only red Grand Cru)




Chores-les-Beaune AOC
Located just North of Beaune
Red wine with delicate tannins, lively acid and displays elegance. 

Savigny-les-Beaune AOC
22 Premier Cru vineyards producing mostly red wine with velvety tannins and soft red berry fruit. The white wine produced here has aromas of apples and hazelnuts.

Beaune AOC 
Is known as the wine capital of Burgundy
42 Premier Cru vineyards producing mostly red wine with dark berry fruits, forest undergrowth and with age the wines display truffle, spice and leather notes. 

Pommard AOC
28 Premier Cru vineyards
This communal has clay soils which produces red wine with intense flavours and aromas. They typically need several years of bottle age to express themselves.

Volnay AOC 
29 Premier Cru vineyards 
Only red production in this appellation
45% of production is for Premier Cru wine
The red wine produced here has a soft mouth feel, aromatic with dark berries, leather and woody notes and as the wines ages it's aromas pick up prune and spice

Monthelie AOC
15 Premier Cry vineyards
The vineyards are planted together around a cut in the hillside made by a river, known as the mouth of a coomb
The red wine displays aromatic fruit and silky tannins 

Auxey-Duresses AOC
9 Premier Cru vineyards
The communal is located South of the red appellation Volnay and North of the the white appellation Meursault 
This AOC produces both Pinot noir and Chardonnay 

Meursault AOC 
18 Premier Cru vineyards
90% white production and almost 1/3 is more Premier Cru wine
Is located in the center of a wide coomb
The white wine produced here has a creamy texture and flavours of apple, oats when young and with age coffee, hazelnuts, cinnamon and honey

Saint Romain AOC
No Premier or Grand Cru vineyards
Almost  all production is White
This communal is highly elevated making for lean, crisp and chiseled wines

17 Premier Cru vineyards and 4 Grand Cru vineyards
The Grand Cru vineyards are





Bienvenues-Batard Montrachet 

Puligny-Montrachet mainly produces White wine that are powerful with golden apple, warm butter and toasted almond flavours

Chassagne-Montrachet AOC
19 Premier Cru vineyards and 3 Grand Cru

The 3 Grand vineyards are




The first 2 Grand Cru vineyards on the list are shared with the communal Puligny 

The white wine produced here is powerful with flavours of honey, apple and toasted nuts

The red wine produced here has black currant and undergrowth aromas and with age leather and fur

St Aubin AOC 
16 Premier Cru vineyards 
St Aubin has a reputation for producing White wine with racy acidity and pronounced minerality

Production here is 50% red and 50% white

The red wine produced here has delicate tannins and raspberry, cherry aromas

Santenay AOC 
11 Premier Cru vineyards
Most of the vineyards are planted with Pinot Noir 
The reds produced here are similar to those produced in the communal Chassagne with more delicate tannin 

Maranges AOC 
7 Premier Cru vineyards
This communal is the Southermost of the Cotes de Beaune
The red here are also similar to the those produced in Chassagne though again with more delicate tannin 

Cotes de Beaune Villages

Village appellations can decide whether to label their wine
Côte de Beaune Villages the following villages are not allowed Aloxe, Beaune, Volnay and Pommard

Cotes de Beaune Village is predominately  red wine with strong tannins, acidity and red berries this wine does very well with bottle age giving the wine time to mature and for the tannins to mellow.


A view over Pernand-Vergelesses and surrounding vineyards, with the Corton hill on the left side.

The Cote Chalonnaise

Location South of the Côte de Beaune and North of the Maconnais

Climate Continental 

The grapes planted here are



Pinot Nor 

Aligote for Bouzeron AOC 

Gamay for the blend and Passé-tout-Grains and the regional AOC Coteaux Bourguignons

The reds produced here are full bodied, firm tannins
The white produced here display floral notes of white flowers and apple

Soil Limestone, Marl are is home to some of the oldest soil in Burgundy

62% Red 

38% white
Red, white, rose and sparkling wine are produced here 

 Principal Villages & Appellations 

Bouzeron AOC  

100% Aligote 
The wine produced here is very aromatic, highly perfumed

Rully AOC 
23 Premier Cru vineyards
Known for its Cremant de Bourgogne production, Sparkling wine produced here is made in the traditional method
Producing red and white wine in the Premier Cru vineyards

Mercurey AOC 
31 Premier Cru vineyards

mostly planted to Pinot Noir

Givry AOC 
26 Premier Cru vineyards

mostly planted to Pinot Noir

Montagny AOC 
49 Premier Cru vineyards

White only AOC 
The white wine produced here has a delicate minerality


The Maconnais

Location South of the Côte Chalonnaise and sits North of Beaujolais 
West is the Grosne Valley and East is the Saone Valley

3 kilometres from Beaujolais 

Largest vineyard area in Burgundy

Climate Is influenced by the Mediterranean 
Sun shines here abundantly and In the growing season the temperatures are quite warm resulting in riper grapes with more pronounced fruit aromas and flavours
Winters in the Macconnais and mild 

Grape varieties 
Pinot Noir (only allowed for Macon AOC

The white wines produced here are known for their fruitiness 
The red and rose wine produced here from Gamay has the typical flavour profile of red berry fruits, strawberries and cherries.

Soil Limestone and Marl are some of the oldest in Burgundy 

Southern Maconnais - Granite and Schist, only region in Burgundy where these soils appear.  

85% Chardonnay grown on limestone, marls and flinty clays
80% of production is bottled as Regional level Macon AOC 


Pouilly-Fuisse AOC 
Most famous commune in The Maconnais 
Reputation for producing quality Chardonnay with delicate aromas of fruit and flowers leading to a soild core of minerality
Soil found here is very similar to the soil in the Côte d'Or

Pouilly-Vinzelles AOCPouilly-Loche AOC 
2 communes next to Pouilly-Fuisse AOC 

These 3 communes produce Chardonnay that has delicate fruit, floral aromas and a solid core of minerality

St Veran AOC
Was once apart of Beaujolais 
In 1971 was reintroduced to The Maconnais
The Chardonnay produced here is easy drinking everyday wine

Vire-Classe AOC 
Newest Maconnais AOC, introduced in 1999
Producing fruit forward Chardonnay

80% of wine produced in the Maconnais is regional AOC level
Majority of white wine produced here is sold as Macon-Villages or Macon + the name of the wine producing village, Macon-Fuisse


Only WHITE wine can be labelled Macon-Villages AOC. 


Macon, Macon Superieur and Macon + village

Red and Rose wine20 wine producing villages are allowed to append their name onto the label.




Global warming 
Harvest is now 10 days earlier than 20 years ago 
Grapes are now chilled before fermentation begins, cooling the fruits helps to preserve delicate aromas and inhibits the spreading of bacteria. 

Increased maturity (riper tannins and pigments)
Now days during the winemaking process the cap doesn't need to be aggressively punched down like before, pumping over the fermenting juice instead. Punching down the grapes helps to release colour and flavour compounds. 

Shorter maceration periods are needed because of the increased maturity level of grapes at harvest

Wild Yeasts - yeasts native to Burgundy, this is one of the ways Burgundians choose to stay true to terroir 

Old oak barrels - used not to impart overt taste of wood tannins

New oak - some Grand Cru incorporate new oak






















When to open your bottle of Burgundy

Patience is needed for Burgundian wine

Wines of the North

Grand Cru Chablis will need 3-4 years and serval more before it reaches it's peak

Chablis Premier Cru 2-3 years though can keep longer

Chablis 1-2 years 

Petit Chablis - year after harvest 

Wines of the Côte d'Or 4-8 years and the better the vintage the longer you should wait

Red wine from the Côte Chalonnaise 2-3 years

White wine from the Côte Chalonnaise 1-2 years

Red wine from the Maconnais should be consumed young 

White wine from the Maconnais should also be consumed young

Vintage,  and how is it impacting your bottle of Burgundy

Great vintages, you will find the differences to be less subtle between the various climats

Soft vintages, the wine will display many more subtle differences 

Punching down the cap, tradtional Burgundian method. Increases the release levels of pigments and tannins from the grapes. Becoming unnecessary in Burgundy due to Increased maturity level at harvest. Increased ripeness = shorter maceration period

Pumping over method, is becoming more and more popluar in Burgundian wine production due to the increasing maturity levels of the grapes at harvest.

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